Coping with Long-Range Flying

This Airbus document provides a practical set of recommendations for the use of longrange crewmembers: alertness decrement, sleep, napping,life hygiene. During long-haul rotations, partial or complete compliance with these recommendations should allow pilots to better manage their levels of alertness in flight, limit sleep loss related to night flights, facilitate, …

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Approach Hazards Awareness

Factors that may contribute to approach-and-landing accidents include flight over hilly terrain, reduced visibility, visual illusions, adverse winds, contaminated runways and/or limited approach aids. Flight crews should be aware of the compounding nature of these hazards during approach and landing. Approach Hazards Awareness PDF file – 57 Kb

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Preventing Landings without clearance

A variety of reports identify pilots’ failure to obtain clearances prior to landing. Fortunately, most incidents do not result in traffic conflicts or other hazardous consequences. However, the potential for a breach of safety is high. So that the industry can better assess the factors contributing to landing-without-clearance events, this paper analysed a small number (37) …

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Sharing The Skies

This Transport Canada document is a crucial tool for managing hazardous interactions between wildlife and aircraft in the vicinity of airports. For example, some land-use activities near airports – such as waste-disposal sites, attract high-risk bird species and, therefore, directly impact aviation safety. Transport Canada strives for the holistic, proactive …

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Tools for the Reduction of Approach and Landing Accidents

Data from numerous safety studies indicate that approach and landing accidents account for a significant proportion of air transport accidents. The aviation industry is committed to reducing the number of these accidents. One effort has led to the creation of a toolkit containing industry data and recommendations for use by …

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Limitations of the See-and-Avoid Principle

The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation published a research report titled, Limitations of the See-and-Avoid Principle. This report concluded that “the see-and-avoid principle, In the absence of traffic alerts, is subject to serious limitations”. Unalerted see-and-avoid has a “limited place as a last resort means of traffic separation at low …

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Human Factors Aspects in Incidents / Accidents

This Flight Operations Briefing Note provides a summary of human factors issues identified in incidents and accidents. This summary may be used either to assess: • The company exposure and develop corresponding prevention strategies; or, • The reader’s individual exposure and develop corresponding personal lines-of-defense. Ultimately, human factors are involved …

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Talk and gaze home position in the Airline Cockpit

This paper considers the embodied nature of discourse for a professional work setting. It examines language in interaction in the airline cockpit, and specifically how shifts in pilots’ eye gaze direction can indicate the action of talk, that is, what talk is doing and its relative contribution to work-in- progress. …

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The Ecology of Language Practices in Worldwide Airline Flight Deck Operations

Spoken and written language play essential roles in the operation of commercial airliners. Spoken language appears in conversations among the crew, between the crew and Air Traffic Control (ATC), in aural alerts to the pilots generated by on-board systems, between the crew and a variety of company personnel (dispatchers, mechanics, …

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Can they Talk the Talk?

Passengers listening in on radio communications on a domestic flight in the United States a couple of years ago heard the following exchange between the pilot and the Jacksonville (Florida, U.S.) Center controller: Pilot: “Jacksonville Control. United XXX. Can we reduce speed to xxx knots?” Controller: “United XXX. Jacksonville Control. …

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Pilot–Air Traffic Control Communications: It’s Not (Only) What You Say, It’s How You Say It

English is the international language of aviation. But even when pilots and controllers both speak English fluently, there are pitfalls in the nature of language and the ways that language is heard. Subtle miscues can subvert messages that seem clear to the sender. Pilots and controllers must be aware of, …

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Aircraft Communications at Uncontrolled Airports

At an airport without an operational control tower, sometimes referred to as an “uncontrolled” airport, communication is one of the key elements in maintaining proper aircraft separation. Use of the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) helps to assure the safe, orderly flow of arrival and departure traffic. FAR 91.113 cites …

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Effective Pilot / Controller Communications

Until controller / pilot data link communication ( CPDLC ) comes into widespread use, air traffic control ( ATC ) will depend upon voice communications that are affected by various factors. Operators and Air Traffic Management providers, like pilots and controllers, are close partners in terms of “productivity”; and operators …

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Analysis of Crew Conversations Provides Insights for Accident Investigation

Recorded voice data, such as from CVRs or air traffic control (ATC) tapes, can be an important source of information for accident investigation, as well as for human factors re- search. During accident investigations, the extent of analysis of these recordings depends on the nature and severity of the accident. …

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Rotorcraft Flying Handbook

Provides technical assistance to applicants preparing for private, commercial, or flight instructor pilot certificates with a helicopter or gyroplane class rating. In authoritative and understandable language, here are explanations of general aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of flight, navigation, communication, flight controls, flight maneuvers, emergencies, and more. Rotorcraft Flying Handbook PDF …

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Plane Sense: General Aviation Information

This handbook is a valuable reference tool for reviewing the nuts and bolts of general aviation, outlining the rules, regulations, and practical aspects of owning and operating a private aircraft. This full-color manual covers subjects such as aircraft owner responsibilities, buying an aircraft, special flight permits, light-sport aircraft, aircraft maintenance, …

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Pilot Risk Management Handbook

Providing tools to aid pilots in achieving the safest possible flights with the least amount of risk, this comprehensive manual covers subjects such as human behavior, identifying and mitigating risk, aeronautical decision-making, single-pilot resource management, automation, and risk management training. Presenting methods pilots can use to manage the workloads associated …

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Communicative functions in languages for Aviation Radiotelephony

The main functions in pilot-controller dialogue are varied by nature of their tasks, however even though they are responsible for different tasks, pilots and controllers both need to acknowledge and communicate with each other in a form that is easily understood.   This document presents a unified checklist that pilots …

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Hints from a commercial pilot about the ICAO English test

Many of our students ask us questions about what is really required to achieve ICAO Level 4.  We – Aviation English Academy – use the following presentation in the first lesson of our ICAO Aviation English course as it provides feedback from a pilot who failed his exam.  While it …

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Constructing flight attendant identity in safety reports to a government agency

This paper investigates the emergence of occupational identity from voluntarily-submitted safety reports written by flight attendants to a US government aviation safety regulatory agency. Using an analytic framework informed by ethnography of communication and interactional sociolinguistics paradigms, this paper argues that the report discourse reflects aviation institutional, hierarchical, and occupational …

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Flight Attendant Identity Construction and Inter-crew Communication

This paper, a preliminary study of Flight Attendant identity construction and attitudes toward inter-crew communication, examines the factors which may affect talk between the cabin crew, also known as flight attendants, and flight crew, also known as pilots onboard a commercial aircraft. The analysis and arguments are based on data …

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Flight Attendant Discourse in Commercial Aviation

The discourse of commercial aviation flight attendants has historically received no sociolinguistic attention. To address this gap, this thesis explores how flight attendants use language in workplace-related contexts to construct their professional identity and community.  This thesis draws on interactional sociolinguistics and sociological research to address how flight attendants use …

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