Approach Hazards Awareness

Factors that may contribute to approach-and-landing accidents include flight over hilly terrain, reduced visibility, visual illusions, adverse winds, contaminated runways and/or limited approach aids. Flight crews should be aware of the compounding nature of these hazards during approach and landing. Approach Hazards Awareness PDF file – 57 Kb

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Preventing Landings without clearance

A variety of reports identify pilots’ failure to obtain clearances prior to landing. Fortunately, most incidents do not result in traffic conflicts or other hazardous consequences. However, the potential for a breach of safety is high. So that the industry can better assess the factors contributing to landing-without-clearance events, this paper analysed a small number (37) …

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Materials development for speaking skills in Aviation English for Malaysian Air Traffic Controllers: Theory and Practice

In 2004 the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) mandated that pilots and air traffic controllers the world over meet a set standard of language proficiency requirements as a safety measure against language- and communication-related problems in flying. In response to this mandate, aviation English training and testing initiatives mushroomed in …

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Sharing The Skies

This Transport Canada document is a crucial tool for managing hazardous interactions between wildlife and aircraft in the vicinity of airports. For example, some land-use activities near airports – such as waste-disposal sites, attract high-risk bird species and, therefore, directly impact aviation safety. Transport Canada strives for the holistic, proactive …

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Tools for the Reduction of Approach and Landing Accidents

Data from numerous safety studies indicate that approach and landing accidents account for a significant proportion of air transport accidents. The aviation industry is committed to reducing the number of these accidents. One effort has led to the creation of a toolkit containing industry data and recommendations for use by …

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Limitations of the See-and-Avoid Principle

The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation published a research report titled, Limitations of the See-and-Avoid Principle. This report concluded that “the see-and-avoid principle, In the absence of traffic alerts, is subject to serious limitations”. Unalerted see-and-avoid has a “limited place as a last resort means of traffic separation at low …

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Human Factors Aspects in Incidents / Accidents

This Flight Operations Briefing Note provides a summary of human factors issues identified in incidents and accidents. This summary may be used either to assess: • The company exposure and develop corresponding prevention strategies; or, • The reader’s individual exposure and develop corresponding personal lines-of-defense. Ultimately, human factors are involved …

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Aircraft Communications at Uncontrolled Airports

At an airport without an operational control tower, sometimes referred to as an “uncontrolled” airport, communication is one of the key elements in maintaining proper aircraft separation. Use of the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) helps to assure the safe, orderly flow of arrival and departure traffic. FAR 91.113 cites …

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Radio miscommunication: EL2 pilots in the Australian General Aviation environment

Communicating effectively via the radio in General Aviation (GA) is a challenging task for most pilots. This is even more challenging for non-native speakers of English (EL2) who are required to master not only a second language but ‘Aviation English’ to communicate with both Air Traffic Control (ATC) and other …

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Communicative functions in languages for Aviation Radiotelephony

The main functions in pilot-controller dialogue are varied by nature of their tasks, however even though they are responsible for different tasks, pilots and controllers both need to acknowledge and communicate with each other in a form that is easily understood.   This document presents a unified checklist that pilots …

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Pilot-Controller Communication Errors: An Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) Reports

Safe and expeditious air traffic depends upon accurate and efficient communications between pilots and controllers. This requirement for effective communication becomes even more critical as the amount and complexity of air traffic increases with attempts to increase capacity. Studies of actual pilot and controller communications reveal an astonishingly low error …

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How Complexity and Format of Air Traffic Control Instructions affect Pilot Recall

Until recently, controllers were required to communicate all numerical air traffic control (ATC) information in sequential format, that is, digit by digit. For example, an altitude of 17,000 ft had to be transmitted as “Climb to one seven thousand.” According to the latest versions of the Air Traffic Control handbook …

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Communication and Co-operation Analysis in Air Traffic Control

This paper presents a global human-machine communication model which explains data flow in an organization based on working position. This model is illustrated by the Air Traffic Control domain. A methodological approach is then proposed for studying the communications between Approach Control working positions, with regard to cooperative work. The …

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Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursions

In 2001, the ICAO Air Navigation Commission took action to address the problem of runway incursions. Several critical areas were identified that needed to be investigated and which had a relation to overall runway safety, including radiotelephony phraseology, language proficiency, equipment, aerodrome lighting and markings, aerodrome charts, operational aspects, situational …

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Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency

This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) scale. The …

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New Pilot’s Guide to ATC Communication

There is an art to using the right words when you communicate with air traffic control (ATC). Effective aviation phraseology combines brevity with the transfer of complete and correct information. Long, detailed transmissions ensure the controller receives the needed information, but these monologues also tie up the frequency. If the …

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Why NextGen Matters

The movement to the next generation of aviation is being enabled by a shift to smarter, satellite-based and digital technologies and new procedures that combine to make air travel more convenient, predictable and environmentally friendly. As demand for our nation’s increasingly congested airspace continues to grow, NextGen improvements are enabling the FAA to guide …

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